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Index

Aims and scope

The Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (JBB) aims to contribute to the advancement and dissemination of knowledge and technology in the fields of bioscience and biotechnology. JBB publishes papers on a broad range of topics in the areas of enzymology, physiology and biotechnology of microbes, plants, and animals; genetics, molecular biology, and gene engineering; brewing and food technology; environmental biotechnology; biochemical engineering; cell and tissue engineering; protein engineering; biomedical engineering; and bioinformatics. The genomics, systems biology, and structural biology, which hold much promise for the future, are also within the scope of JBB.

The cell and tissue engineering section covers research on cell culture engineering in order to contribute to regenerative medicine. Topics include the technologies for stem cell culture such as mass production, differentiation control, and tissue reconstruction. Studies in the field of pure cell biology and embryology are not appropriate for JBB.

The biomedical engineering section deals with topics related to bioprocess engineering in the field of medicine, including biomaterials, scaffold, artificial organs, drug delivery system, microfluidics, micro-fabrication. Studies in the field of basic medicine, pharmaceutical sciences, dentistry, and surgical technique are not suitable for JBB.

The journal accepts only those papers that are most significant to the field of bioscience and bioengineering. Thus, manuscripts focusing on only optimization of some objective function based on a conventional statistical approach will be editorially rejected.

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Editorial policy


General requirements
Manuscripts submitted to the journal must represent reports of unpublished original research, which are not under consideration for publication elsewhere in any medium. Related manuscripts that are in press or submitted elsewhere must accompany the submission. The submission for publication must be approved by all authors.

Permissions
The corresponding author must obtain permission from the copyright owner to reproduce figures or tables that have been published elsewhere and credit the sources in the relevant figure legend or table footnote of the manuscript.

Authorship
Authorship credit should be based on substantial contributions to the overall design and execution of the work. The corresponding author (the single person to whom all the correspondence on the manuscript should be addressed) is responsible for ensuring that all contributors meet the authorship criteria and for informing all authors of the manuscript’s status throughout the review and publication process. The order of authorship on the byline should be a joint decision of the co-authors. Statements regarding equal contributions by two or more authors (e.g., the first two authors contributed equally to this work) are permitted as footnotes to bylines. Membership in the Society for Biotechnology, Japan (SBJ) is not a prerequisite for submission. Our authorship policies conform to the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, http://www.icmje.org).

Conflict of interest
Authors are requested at the time of submission to disclose any commercial association as well as consulting, stock ownership, equity interests, and patent-licensing arrangements that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with their submitted paper. Sources of any financial support of the project must be credited in the Acknowledgments section.

Copyright
JBB is copyrighted by the Society for Biotechnology, Japan (SBJ), and authors are considered to have transferred their rights to SBJ. Requests for any reproduction or translation of JBB articles should be submitted to the SBJ Business Office (). This request must include a statement of intended use as well as explicit specification of the material to be reproduced.

Use of human subjects or animals in research
Manuscripts reporting experiments on human subjects should clearly state that the research has complied with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964, as revised in 2008. Experiments using animals should be conducted in accordance with the institutional and national standards and authors are required to indicate whether the guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.

Disclaimer
SBJ assumes no responsibility for the statements and opinions advanced by the contributors to the Society’s publications. Editorial views do not necessarily represent the position of SBJ. The use of trade names does not imply endorsement by SBJ.

Page charges
Starting with papers published in vol. 110, no. 1 (July 2010), SBJ does not require page charges of articles which meet the following conditions: 1) the research was conducted outside Japan AND 2) the corresponding author does not work for any governmental/non-governmental organization, private company or academic institution in Japan. Submissions from Japan are subject to page charges of 4,500 JPY per printed page as ever. Invoice will be sent to the author once the article has been published in print.

Color charges
Color figures will appear on the web at no additional charge, regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. Authors may choose to publish their figures in color or in black-and-white in the printed version. The corresponding author will receive a request form for the color option by SBJ after the article is accepted for publication. For color reproduction in print, authors will be charged 40,000 JPY per printed page.

Correction of English
SBJ strongly recommends authors who are unsure of proper English usage to have their manuscripts checked by language editing services prior to submission. Manuscripts that do not conform to standard English usage may be editorially rejected and returned to the authors. Manuscripts under review may be sent to language correction at the editor’s discretion. In such case, the costs must be borne by the author. No waiver application will be considered.

For authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission, please visit http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authorshome.authors/languagepolishing or contact authorsupport@elsevier.com for more information. Please note SBJ and Elsevier neither endorse nor take responsibility for any products, goods or services offered by outside vendors through their services or in any advertising. For more information, please refer to Elsevier’s Terms and Conditions.

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Submission to public databases


Nucleotide and amino acid sequences
Before publication, authors must deposit novel nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data in any one of the three major collaborative databases: DDBJ (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp), EMBL (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl), and GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). The accession number(s) should be listed in a separate paragraph at the end of the Materials and Methods section for Regular papers and at the end of the text for Notes. The suggested wording for referring to accession numbers is “These sequence data have been submitted to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under accession no. A13579”.

Structural determinations
Papers describing new structures of macromolecules must include entry codes assigned by the Protein Data Bank (http://pdbdep.protein.osaka-u.ac.jp and http://rcsb-deposit.rutgers.edu/). The atomic parameters and structure-factor amplitudes should be released when the manuscript is published.

Microarray data
Results based on microarray experiments should satisfy the Minimal Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME) standard criteria (http://www.mged.org/Workgroups/MIAME/miame.html) and must be deposited in the appropriate public databases: ArrayExpress (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/microarray-as/ae/]), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) or Center for Information Biology Gene Expression Database (CIBEX) (http://cibex.nig.ac.jp/index.jsp). The accession number(s) should be listed in a separate paragraph at the end of the Materials and Methods section for Regular papers and at the end of the text for Notes.

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Manuscript submission


Online submission
Authors are requested to submit their manuscripts electronically, by using the Elsevier Editorial System (EES) at http://ees.elsevier.com/jbiosc/.

After registration, authors will be asked to upload their article, an extra copy of the abstract, and associated artwork. The submission tool will generate a PDF file to be used for the reviewing process. The corresponding author will receive an automatic reply and a manuscript number for future correspondence. A cover letter, Checklist, and Submission Agreement must be submitted online by authors together with the manuscript. The cover letter must address the following points: 1) all authors agree to submit the work to JBB, 2) the work has not been published before and is not being submitted to another journal, 3) the novelty and significant contribution of the submitted work must be briefly described, 4) the transfer of copyright from the author to the Society for Biotechnology, Japan (SBJ), 5) whether the manuscript has been checked by language editing services prior to submission or not (please attach certificate, if applicable). If the manuscript is a resubmission, the former manuscript number should be indicated.

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Review and publication process


Review process
All manuscripts are considered to be confidential and are reviewed by members of Editorial Board, and qualified referees. Reviews are normally completed within 3 to 4 weeks from receipt of the manuscripts and the corresponding author will be notified of the editor’s decision to accept, reject, or require revision. Note that manuscripts may be editorially rejected without review, on the basis of lack of conformity to the standards set forth in these instructions.When requested for revision, authors must submit the revised version along with a point-by-point response to each reviewer and the editor. If the revision is not submitted within 60 days, the submission will be withdrawn and any revised version will be considered as a new submission. Additional time for revision is granted upon request, at the discretion of the editor. Manuscripts that have been rejected or withdrawn may be resubmitted with appropriate modifications based on the editor’s comments. In such cases, the revised version must be submitted as a new submission, accompanied by the former manuscript number and detailed response to original reviewers, but not be sent to the original editor directly.


Notification of acceptance
Once a decision has been made on an article, the corresponding author will be notified. If the article is accepted, it will be entered into Elsevier's production tracking system and the corresponding author will receive an acknowledgement letter containing the production reference number, accompanied by an offprint order form and a copyright transfer form.

The production reference number along with the corresponding author's last name can be used to track the status of the article at Track Paper.

Please note that the production reference number is different to the editorial reference number assigned by the Editor.

Proofs
The corresponding author will receive one set of page proofs in PDF format by Elsevier’s production department. The address for return of corrected proofs will be clearly indicated in that proof e-mail.

Reprints
The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use.

Paper offprints order can be made to Author Orders.

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Organization and format


 

Manuscript type
Regular papers: Full-length papers describing the results of original research. Manuscripts should be written to emphasize clearly and concisely the novel aspects of the information reported, and preferably not exceed 25 double-spaced pages of text (ca. 25 lines per page, including references). Authors are encouraged to restrict figures and tables to essential data, preferably no more than 6 figures and/or tables combined.

Notes: Short research reports which contain material of unique interest but are not sufficient to form the basis of Regular papers. Notes should not exceed 10 double-spaced pages of text (including references) and should not contain more than 3 figures and/or tables. A short abstract of no more than 50 words must be provided. References should be less than 20. Do not use section headings in the text but describe materials and methods, results, and discussion in a single section. The editors reserve the right to decide what constitutes a Note.

Technical notes: Short research reports which contain new techniques, useful methods, and technical information for all aspects of practical biotechnology research and applications. The format should be the same as that of Notes.

Reviews: Reviews survey recent developments in a topical area of research and should be sharply focused and balanced accounts for progress in fields of interest to the readers of the journal. Reviews should not generally exceed 35 double-spaced pages of text (including the references). Authorship is normally by invitation, although we are keen to receive proposals for prospective articles from authors. Authors considering submission of a review article must first send a brief synopsis (approximately 500 words), citing key references, to the Journal Office at (please do not submit the completed manuscripts prior to this consultation). If the proposal is accepted, authors may submit the manuscript via the Elsevier Editorial System (EES).

Letters to the editor: Letters to the editor are confined to discussions of articles that have appeared in JBB within the previous three months. Although the format is optional, they are peer-reviewed, and substantially edited by JBB editors in consultation with the authors. Letters should not exceed 2 printed pages including figures and tables.


Errata
Erratum provides a means of correcting errors that occurred during the publication process, such as misspelling, mislabeling in a figure, a missed word, and so on. Please contact the SBJ Business Office () before you send Errata.

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Style
The whole manuscript (including References, figure legends, and table footnotes) must be typed in 12 point and double-spaced (a minimum of 6 mm between lines, ca. 25 lines per page). Times or Times New Roman is recommended. Format your documents for A4 size (210 × 297 mm). Number each page at the bottom, beginning with the title page. Manuscript pages should have line numbers. Items should be provided in the following order: Title page, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, References, Figure legends, Figures, and Tables. Each figure and table file should be uploaded individually. Due to technical reasons, symbols, shading, double underlines, and wavy lines are not available in text body and tables. Manuscripts that do not conform to these instructions may be editorially rejected and returned to the authors for reformatting.

Title and running title
The title of a paper should be a label. Avoid a complete sentence. Serial titles are not accepted. The title should not contain any jargon or nonstandard abbreviations. An opening A, An or The in the title is useless for indexing purpose. Provide a running title of no more than 54 characters including spaces for Regular papers and Reviews.

Authors
The full name and the complete mailing address of each author should be given. Place numbers in superscript after the name of each author and the relevant address. An asterisk should follow the name of the corresponding author. Any changes of address may be given in a footnote.

Key words
A list of 5 to 10 key words that will be useful for indexing or searching must be included on the title page. Avoid abbreviations. General terms, such as "activity", "culture", "enzyme" and so on, should not be used unless qualified, e.g., "surface activity", "fed-batch culture", and "enzyme stability". Inappropriate key words may be omitted at the publication stage.

Correspondent footnote
A single e-mail address, a single telephone number, and a single fax number for the corresponding author should be provided.

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Abstract
An abstract should provide the context or background for the study and state the purpose of the research, scope of the experiments, major findings, and principal conclusions. References in the abstract must be cited in full as "Sampaio et al., J. Biosci. Bioeng., 105, 305-312 (2008)". The abstract should be written in the past tense as a single paragraph not exceeding 250 words.

Introduction
Provide a context or sufficient background information for the study. Do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported. Subheadings should not be used and an exhaustive review of the literature should be avoided.

Materials and Methods
Provide sufficient technical information to allow the experiments to be reproduced. Previously published methods should be cited, and truly novel procedures could be described in detail. If a manuscript concerns a commercial product, the manufacturer’s name and their location (city, state, and country) must be indicated in this section.

Results
The results of experiments and representative data should be stated clearly and precisely in the past tense. Do not repeat experimental details previously provided in the Materials and Methods section. Subheadings can be used.

Discussion
Discussion should be restricted to interpretation of the results. Subheadings can be used. When appropriate, you may combine the Results and Discussion section.

Acknowledgments
Acknowledgements should be brief in a single paragraph and should precede the references. Personal acknowledgements precede those of agencies and institution.

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References
All listed references must be cited in the text. Arrange the citations in order of their appearance in the text and number consecutively. Abbreviate journal names according to the List of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health, 2007; available at ftp://nlmpubs.nlm.nih.gov/online/journals/ljiweb.pdf. Use periods after abbreviations. One-word titles (e.g., Biochemistry) are never abbreviated. In-press references must provide the publication title and the probable year of publication. In-press articles should be submitted as supplemental material.

The following types of references are not valid for listing: unpublished data, manuscripts submitted, meeting abstracts, unpublished conference presentations (e.g., poster or report), personal communications, letters (irrespective of type) and authors’ replies to letters, company publications, patents, theses, computer software, databases, and websites. References to such sources should be made parenthetically in the text.

List all authors when there are 12 or fewer; if more than 13, list the first 10 names followed by "and other 3 authors".Follow the style shown in the examples below.

1. Takahashi, H. and Honda, H.: Prediction of peptide binding to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules through use of boosted fuzzy classifier with SWEEP operator method, J. Biosci. Bioeng., 101, 137–141 (2006).

2. Ashiuchi, M. and Misono, H.: Poly-γ-glutamic acid, p. 123–174. In Fahnestock, S. R. and Steinbüchel, A. (ed.), Biopolymers, vol. 7. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2002).

3. Ivanova, N., Sorokin, A., Anderson, I., Galleron, N., Candelon, B., Kapatral, V., Bhattacharyya, A., Reznik, G., Mikhailova, N., Lapidus, A., and other 13 authors: Genome sequence of Bacillus cereus and comparative analysis with Bacillus anthracis. Nature, 423, 87–91 (2003).

4. Ohtomo, M., Kimura, K., Watanabe, S., and Toeda, K.: Production of components containing γ-aminobutyric acid from rice bran by Lactobacillus brevis IFO12005. Seibutsu-kogaku, 84, 479–483 (2006). (in Japanese)

5. Kim, M-H., Kino-oka, M., Kawase, M., Yagi, K., and Taya, M.: Response of human epithelial cells to culture surfaces with varied roughnesses prepared by immobilizing dendrimers with/without D-glucose display. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (2007). (in press)

Examples for references cited in the text:
… as described previously (Ike, M., Abstr. 58th Annu. Meet. Soc. Biotechnol., Jpn., p. 3, 2006).
…were analyzed (Tanaka, S., Ph.D. thesis, Osaka University, Osaka, 2007).
… was observed (Murata, K. and Hashimoto, W., unpublished data).
… by the methods previously described (Kuroda, A., Miyamoto, K., and Ohtake, H., Japanese patent 2006-176450, 2006).

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Tables
Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in order of appearance in the text. Type each table double-spaced on a separate page with a short descriptive title typed directly above and with essential footnotes below. Tables must be made using the Microsoft Word table function. Microsoft PowerPoint and PDF are acceptable formats.

Figures
It is the author's responsibility to provide artwork for all illustrations, both line and halftone. Figures must be restricted to the minimum and numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. Multipanel figures should be labeled with an upper-case, bold letter (A, B, C). Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Lettering should be clear and of adequate size to be legible after reduction. Consider the printed page and column proportions when preparing figures.

Color figures will appear on the web at no additional charge, regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, the corresponding author will receive information regarding the costs from SBJ after receipt of your accepted article. As only one figure caption may be used for both color and black and white versions of figures, please ensure that the figure captions are meaningful for both versions, if applicable. Figures should be checked extremely carefully, particularly after revisions. No changes to figures will be possible after acceptance of the manuscript. A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions/.

The final sizes of figures are as follows:

Maximum width for a 1-column figure: 8.5 cm
Maximum width for a 2-column figure: 17.5 cm
Maximum height: 23.2 cm

All figures must be submitted at their intended publication size.

Figure legends
Figure legends should be typed double spaced at the end of the text, not on the figures, starting on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the figures. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the figures, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend. Do not insert symbols but describe using English terms such as "closed circles" or "open triangles". Explain the internal scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.

Supplementary materials
JBB accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, movies, animation sequences, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please ensure that data is provided in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For ease of download, the recommended upper limit for the size of a single file is 10 MB. When the size of a single file is bigger than this, some users may experience problems when downloading the file. Supplementary figures and tables should be labeled as "Figure S1" and "Table S1".

For more detailed instructions please visit Elsevier's artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

AudioSlides
The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.
 

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