JBB : Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

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Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering – Recent Articles

  • Characterization of water-soluble dark-brown pigment from Antarctic bacterium, Lysobacter oligotrophicus
    Publication date: Available online 17 December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

    Author(s): Tomomi Kimura , Wakao Fukuda , Tomoe Sanada , Tadayuki Imanaka

    Lysobacter oligotrophicus strain 107-E2T isolated from Antarctica produces dark-brown colored water-soluble pigment, in addition to hydrolases and lytic enzymes. The production of pigment is a common characteristic among members of the genus Lysobacter, but the identity of the pigments has been unknown. In this study, we identified the pigment from L. oligotrophicus as melanin pigment (Lo-melanin) by chemical and spectroscopic analyses. Although melanin is generally insoluble in both aqueous and organic solvents, the results in this study revealed that Lo-melanin shows water-solubility by means of the added polysaccharide chain. Lo-melanin production of L. oligotrophicus was increased by ultraviolet (UV) exposure, and survival rate of Escherichia coli under UV-irradiated condition was increased by the addition of Lo-melanin to the medium.





  • Characterization of a novel thermostable N-acylhomoserine lactonase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermaerobacter marianensis
    Publication date: Available online 16 December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

    Author(s): Tomohiro Morohoshi , Yoshiaki Tominaga , Nobutaka Someya , Tsukasa Ikeda

    Thermaerobacter marianensis is an extremely thermophilic bacterium, which was isolated from the Mariana Trench, with an optimal growth temperature of approximately 75°C. N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) is a quorum-sensing signal molecule used by many gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report the identification of an AHL-degrading gene homolog (designated aiiT) in the genome of T. marianensis JCM 10246. AiiT has 59.7%, 21.2%, and 11.2% identity to AhlS from Solibacillus silvestris, AiiA from Bacillus cereus, and AidC from Chryseobacterium sp., respectively. Homologs of aiiT were also found in Thermaerobacter nagasakiensis, T. composti, and T. subterraneus. A purified AiiT-maltose binding fusion showed high AHL-degrading activity against N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone, N-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactone, and N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80°C. HPLC analysis revealed that AiiT functions as an AHL-lactonase that catalyzes AHL ring opening by hydrolyzing lactones. AiiT displayed maximal activity at high temperatures (60–80°C) and showed higher thermostability than other AHL lactonases.





  • Production of biomass and bioactive compounds from adventitious roots by optimization of culturing conditions of Eurycoma longifolia in balloon-type bubble bioreactor system
    Publication date: Available online 12 December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

    Author(s): Tao Lulu , So-Young Park , Rusli Ibrahim , Kee-Yoeup Paek

    The present study aimed to optimize the conditions for the production of adventitious roots from Eurycoma longifolia Jack, an important medicinal woody plant, in bioreactor culture. The effects of the type and concentration of auxin on root growth were studied, as well as the effects of the NH4 +:NO3 ratio on adventitious root growth and the production of phenolics and flavonoids. Approximately 5 g L−1 fresh weight of adventitious roots was inoculated into a 3 L balloon-type bubble bioreactor, which contained 2 L 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 30 g L−1 sucrose and cultures were maintained in the dark for 7 weeks at 24 ± 1°C. Higher concentrations of IBA (7.0 and 9.0 mg L−1) and NAA (5.0 mg L−1) enhanced the biomass and accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids. The adventitious roots were thin, numerous, and elongated in 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 5.0 and 7.0 mg L−1 IBA, whereas the lateral roots were shorter and thicker with 5.0 mg L−1 NAA compared with IBA treatment. The optimum biomasses of 50.22 g L−1 fresh weight and 4.60 g L−1 dry weight were obtained with an NH4 +:NO3 ratio of 15:30. High phenolic and flavonoid productions (38.59 and 11.27 mg L−1 medium, respectively) were also obtained with a ratio of 15:30. Analysis of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity indicated higher antioxidant activity with an NH4 +:NO3 ratio of 30:15. These results suggest that balloon-type bubble bioreactor cultures are suitable for the large-scale commercial production of E. longifolia adventitious roots which contain high yield of bioactive compounds.





  • Requirement of carbon dioxide for initial growth of facultative methylotroph, Acidomonas methanolica MB58
    Publication date: Available online 12 December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

    Author(s): Ryoji Mitsui , Hiroko Katayama , Mitsuo Tanaka

    The facultative methylotrophic bacterium Acidomonas methanolica MB58 can utilize C1 compounds via the ribulose monophosphate pathway. A large gene cluster comprising three components related to C1 metabolism was found in the genome. From upstream, the first was an mxa cluster encoding proteins for oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde; the second was the rmp cluster encoding enzymes for formaldehyde fixation; and the third was the cbb gene cluster encoding proteins for carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation. Examination of CO2 requirements for growth of A. methanolica MB58 cells demonstrated that it did not grow on any carbon source under CO2-free conditions. Measurement of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated enzymatic activity was detected in A. methanolica MB58 at growth phase, regardless of carbon sources. However, methanol dehydrogenase and 3-hexlose-6-phosphate synthase expression was regulated by methanol or formaldehyde; it were detected during growth and apparently differed from ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase expression. These results suggested that A. methanolica MB58 may be initially dependent on autotrophic growth and that carbon assimilation was subsequently coupled with the ribulose monophosphate pathway at early- to mid-log phases during methylotrophic growth.





  • Analyses of chicken sialyltransferases related to N-glycosylation
    Publication date: Available online 8 December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

    Author(s): Yusuke Kojima , Akifumi Mizutani , Yuya Okuzaki , Ken-ichi Nishijima , Hidenori Kaneoka , Takako Sasamoto , Katsuhide Miyake , Shinji Iijima

    Proteins exogenously expressed and deposited in the egg whites of transgenic chickens did not contain terminal sialic acid in their N-glycan. Since this sugar is important for the biological stability of therapeutic proteins, we examined chicken sialyltransferases (STs). Based on homologies in DNA sequences, we cloned and expressed several chicken STs, which appeared to be involved in N-glycosylation in mammals, in 293FT cells. Enzymatic activity was detected with ST3Gal3, ST3Gal6 and ST6Gal1 using galactose-β1,4-N-acetylglucosamine (Galβ1,4GlcNAc) as an acceptor. Using Golgi fractions from the cell-free extracts of chicken organs, α2,3- and/or α2,6-ST activities were detected in the liver and kidney, but were absent in the oviduct cells in which egg-white proteins were produced. This result suggested that the lack of ST activities in oviduct cells mainly caused the lack of sialic acid in the N-glycan of proteins exogenously expressed and deposited in egg white.





  • Pichia anomala, a new species of yeast-like endosymbionts and its variation in small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus)
    Publication date: Available online 8 December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

    Author(s): Wei Cao , Zheng Ma , Yolanda H. Chen , Xiaoping Yu

    Yeast-like symbionts (YLS) are endosymbionts that promote the growth of delphacid planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), some of which are pests on cultivated rice. Identification and characterization of YLS growth can be helpful for pest control, because it has been demonstrated that there is a variety of YLS in rice planthopper and they affected the planthopper's growth and virulence to plant hosts. So, elucidation of the species of YLS in planthopper is crucial for exploiting a new way to control planthopper. In this study, a new isolated of YLS was obtained from the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, which was cultured in vitro, simultaneously identified as Pichia anomala based on its phylogenetic analysis. In order to confirm the existence of P. anomala in the L. striatellus body, we used the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to identify the YLS and obtain the specific bands for P. anomala. The quantification and localization of P. anomala in L. striatellus samples were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using genus-specific 18S rDNA targeted probe. The result confirmed that a certain number of P. anomala exist in L. striatellus's abdomen. Subsequently, the variation and copy number of P. anomala in different L. striatellus instars was measured by using absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), the results indicated that the new isolated strain was closely related to the developmental process of L. striatellus.





  • Production and application of a rare disaccharide using sucrose phosphorylase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides
    Publication date: Available online 8 December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

    Author(s): Kenji Morimoto , Akihide Yoshihara , Toshio Furumoto , Goro Takata

    Sucrose phosphorylase (SPase) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides exhibited activity towards eight ketohexoses, which behaved as d-glucosyl acceptors, and α-d-glucose-l-phosphate (G1P), which behaved as a donor. All eight of these ketohexoses were subsequently transformed into the corresponding d-glucosyl-ketohexoses. Of the eight ketohexoses evaluated in the current study, d-allulose behaved as the best substrate for SPase, and the resulting d-glucosyl-d-alluloside product was found to be a non-reducing sugar with a specific optical rotation of [ α ] D 20  + 74.36°. d-Glucosyl-d-alluloside was identified as α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-allulofuranoside by NMR analysis. d-Glucosyl-d-alluloside exhibited an inhibitory activity towards an invertase from yeast with a K m value of 50 mM, where it behaved as a competitive inhibitor with a K i value of 9.2 mM. d-Glucosyl-d-alluloside was also successfully produced from sucrose using SPase and d-tagatose 3-epimerase. This process also allowed for the production of G1P from sucrose and d-allulose from d-fructose, which suggested that this method could be used to prepare d-glucosyl-d-alluloside without the need for expensive reagents such as G1P and d-allulose.





  • Change in enzyme production by gradually drying culture substrate during solid-state fermentation
    Publication date: Available online 5 December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

    Author(s): Kazunari Ito , Katsuya Gomi , Masahiro Kariyama , Tsuyoshi Miyake

    The influence of drying the culture substrate during solid-state fermentation on enzyme production was investigated using a non-airflow box. The drying caused a significant increase in enzyme production, while the mycelium content decreased slightly. This suggests that changes in the water content in the substrate during culture affect enzyme production in fungi.





  • Effect of oxygen supply on Monascus pigments and citrinin production in submerged fermentation
    Publication date: Available online 5 December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

    Author(s): Jian Yang , Qi Chen , Weiping Wang , Jiajun Hu , Chuan Hu

    The influence of oxygen supply on Monascus pigments and citrinin production by Monascus ruber HS.4000 in submerged fermentation was studied. For Monascus cultivation with high pigments and low citrinin production, the initial growth phase, mid-stage phase, and later-stage production phase were separated by shifting oxygen supply. The optimal condition for the fermentation process in shake-flask fermentation was a three-stage rotating rate controlled strategy (0–48 h at 150 rpm, 48–108 h at 250 rpm, 108–120 h at 200 rpm) with medium volume of 100 mL added to 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks at 30°C for 120 h cultivation. Compared to constant one-stage cultivation (medium volume of 100 mL, rotating rate of 250 rpm), the pigments were reduced by 40.4%, but citrinin was reduced by 64.2%. The most appropriate condition for the fermentation process in a 10 L fermentor is also a three-stage aeration process (0–48 h at 300 L/h, 48–96 h at 500 L/h, 96–120 h at 200 L/h) with agitation of 300 rpm at 30°C for 120 h cultivation, and 237.3 ± 5.7 U/mL pigments were produced in 120 h with 6.05 ± 0.19 mg/L citrinin in a 10 L fermentor. Compared to aeration-constant (500 L/h) cultivation, pigment production was increased by 29.6% and citrinin concentration was reduced by 79.5%.





  • Purification and characterization of a novel NADPH-dependent 2-aminoacetophenone reductase from Arthrobacter sulfureus
    Publication date: Available online 5 December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

    Author(s): Guogang Zhao , Wanru Sun , Jianjun Wang

    A novel 2-aminoacetophenone reductase was purified to homogeneity from Arthrobacter sulfureus BW1010. The enzyme is a monomer with a molecular weight of approximately 60 kDa. Using NADPH as coenzyme, it catalyzes the reduction of ketones, especially amine phenyl ketones, and stereospecifically reduces 2-aminoacetophenone to (S)-2-amino-1-phenylethanol (e.e > 99.8%) with the optimal pH at 7.5.





  • Development of carboxymethyl cellulose nonwoven sheet as a novel hemostatic agent
    Publication date: Available online 3 December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

    Author(s): Seiichi Ohta , Toru Nishiyama , Megumu Sakoda , Kyoko Machioka , Masaya Fuke , Shigetoshi Ichimura , Fuyuki Inagaki , Atsushi Shimizu , Kiyoshi Hasegawa , Norihiro Kokudo , Makoto Kaneko , Yutaka Yatomi , Taichi Ito

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a plant-derived material that has high biocompatibility and water solubility. We developed a CMC nonwoven sheet as a hemostatic agent by carboxymethylating a continuous filament cellulose nonwoven sheet. The CMC nonwoven sheet was able to absorb water and dissolve in it. The rates of absorption and dissolution depended on the degree of carboxymethylation. After dissolving in blood, CMC accelerated clot development (possibly owing to the incorporation of CMC into fibrin fibers) and increased the viscosity of the blood, both of which would contribute to the improved blood clotting of an injured surface. In vivo experiments using a rat tail cutting method showed that a CMC nonwoven sheet shortened the bleeding time of the tail when applied to the cut surface. The hemostatic effect of the CMC nonwoven sheet was almost at the same level as a commercial hemostatic bandage. These results suggest that a CMC nonwoven sheet could be used as a novel sheet-type hemostatic agent.





  • Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate
    Publication date: Available online 2 December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

    Author(s): Chihaya Yamada , Souichiro Kato , Yoshiyuki Ueno , Masaharu Ishii , Yasuo Igarashi

    Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4.





  • Enhanced production of branched-chain amino acids by Gluconacetobacter europaeus with a specific regional deletion in a leucine responsive regulator
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Volume 118, Issue 6

    Author(s): Naoki Akasaka , Yuri Ishii , Ryota Hidese , Hisao Sakoda , Shinsuke Fujiwara

    Vinegar with increased amounts of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine and isoleucine) is favorable for human health as BCAAs decrease diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia. To construct Gluconacetobacter europaeus which produces BCAAs, leucine responsive regulator (GeLrp) is focused and two Gelrp mutants were constructed. Wild-type KGMA0119 didn't produce significant amount of valine (0.13 mM) and leucine (0 mM) and strain KGMA7110 which lacks complete Gelrp accumulated valine (0.48 mM) and leucine (0.11 mM) but showed impaired growth, and it was fully restored in the presence of essential amino acids. Strain KGMA7203 was then constructed with a nonsense mutation at codon Trp132 in the Gelrp, which leads a specific deletion at an estimated ligand-sensing region in the C-terminal domain. KGMA7203 produced greater quantities of valine (0.80 mM) and leucine (0.26 mM) and showed the same growth characteristics as KGMA0119. mRNA levels of BCAAs biosynthesis genes (ilvI and ilvC) and probable BCAAs efflux pump (leuE) were determined by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Expression rates of ilvI and ilvC in the two Gelrp disruptants were greater than those in KGMA0119. leuE was highly expressed in KGMA7110 only, suggesting that the accumulation in KGMA7110 culture was caused by increased expression of the biosynthesis genes and abnormal enhanced export of amino acids resulting in impaired cell growth. In contrast, KGMA7203 would achieve the high level production through enhanced expression of the biosynthesis genes without enhancing that for the efflux pump. KGMA7203 was considered advantageous for production of vinegar with higher amounts of valine and leucine.





  • Reduction of nitric oxide catalyzed by hydroxylamine oxidoreductase from an anammox bacterium
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Volume 118, Issue 6

    Author(s): Tatsuya Irisa , Daisuke Hira , Kenji Furukawa , Takao Fujii

    The hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) from the anammox bacterium, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis has been reported to catalyze the oxidation of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) to nitric oxide (NO) by using bovine cytochrome c as an oxidant. In contrast, we investigated whether the HAO from anammox bacterium strain KSU-1 could catalyze the reduction of NO with reduced benzyl viologen (BVred) and the NO-releasing reagent, NOC 7. The reduction proceeded, resulting in the formation of NH2OH as a product. The oxidation rate of BVred was proportional to the concentration of BVred itself for a short period in each experiment, a situation that was termed quasi-steady state. The analyses of the states at various concentrations of HAO allowed us to determine the rate constant for the catalytic reaction, (2.85 ± 0.19) × 105 M−1 s−1, governing NO reduction by BVred and HAO, which was comparable to that reported for the HAO from the ammonium oxidizer, Nitrosomonas with reduced methyl viologen. These results suggest that the anammox HAO functions to adjust anammox by inter-conversion of NO and NH2OH depending on the redox potential of the physiological electron transfer protein in anammox bacteria.





  • Identification, purification and characterization of a novel collagenolytic serine protease from fig (Ficus carica var. Brown Turkey) latex
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Volume 118, Issue 6

    Author(s): Brankica Raskovic , Olga Bozovic , Radivoje Prodanovic , Vesna Niketic , Natalija Polovic

    A novel collagenolytic serine protease was identified and then purified (along with ficin) to apparent homogeneity from the latex of fig (Ficus carica, var. Brown Turkey) by two step chromatographic procedure using gel and covalent chromatography. The enzyme is a monomeric protein of molecular mass of 41 ± 9 kDa as estimated by analytical gel filtration chromatography. It is an acidic protein with a pI value of approximately 5 and optimal activity at pH 8.0–8.5 and temperature 60°C. The enzymatic activity was strongly inhibited by PMSF and Pefabloc SC, indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease. The enzyme showed specificity towards gelatin and collagen (215 GDU/mg and 24.8 CDU/mg, respectively) and non-specific protease activity (0.18 U/mg against casein). The enzyme was stable and retained full activity over a broad range of pH and temperature. The fig latex collagenolytic protease is potentially useful as a non-microbial enzyme with collagenolytic activity for various applications in the fields of biochemistry, biotechnology and medicine.





  • Construction of an efficient Escherichia coli whole-cell biocatalyst for d-mannitol production
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Volume 118, Issue 6

    Author(s): Shamlan M.S. Reshamwala , Sandip K. Pagar , Vishal S. Velhal , Vijay M. Maranholakar , Vishal G. Talangkar , Arvind M. Lali

    Mannitol is a six carbon sugar alcohol that finds applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries. A novel Escherichia coli strain capable of converting d-glucose to d-mannitol has been constructed, wherein native mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MtlD) and codon-optimized Eimeria tenella mannitol-1-phosphatase (M1Pase) have been overexpressed. Codon-optimized Pseudomonas stutzeri phosphite dehydrogenase (PtxD) was overexpressed for cofactor (NADH) regeneration with the concomitant oxidation of phosphite to phosphate. Whole-cell biotransformation using resting cells in a medium containing d-glucose and equimolar sodium phosphite resulted in d-mannitol yield of 87 mol%. Thus, production of an industrially relevant biochemical without using complex media components and elaborate process control mechanisms has been demonstrated.





  • Extraction of squalene as value-added product from the residual biomass of Schizochytrium mangrovei PQ6 during biodiesel producing process
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Volume 118, Issue 6

    Author(s): Minh Hien Hoang , Nguyen Cam Ha , Le Thi Thom , Luu Thi Tam , Hoang Thi Lan Anh , Ngo Thi Hoai Thu , Dang Diem Hong

    Today microalgae represent a viable alternative source of squalene for commercial application. The species Schizochytrium mangrovei, a heterotrophic microalga, has been widely studied and provides a high amount of squalene, polyunsaturated fatty acids and has good profiles for biodiesel production. Our work was aimed at examining the squalene contents in Vietnam's heterotrophic marine microalga S. mangrovei PQ6 biomass and residues of the biodiesel process from this strain. Thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were successfully applied to the determination of squalene in S. mangrovei PQ6. The squalene content and production of S. mangrovei PQ6 reached 33.00 ± 0.02 and 33.04 ± 0.03 mg g−1 of dry cell weight; and 0.992 g L−1 and 1.019 g L−1 in 30 and 150 L bioreactors, respectively after 96 h of fermentation. In addition, squalene was also detected in spent biomass (approximately 80.10 ± 0.03 mg g−1 of spent biomass) from the S. mangrovei PQ6 biodiesel production process. The structure of squalene in residues of the biodiesel process was confirmed from its nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The results obtained from our work suggest that there is tremendous potential in the exploitation of squalene as a value-added by-product besides biodiesel from S. mangrovei PQ6 to reduce biodiesel price.





  • Factors affecting phenolic acid liberation from rice grains in the sake brewing process
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Volume 118, Issue 6

    Author(s): Toshihiko Ito , Nobukazu Suzuki , Airi Nakayama , Masaya Ito , Katsumi Hashizume

    Phenolic acid (ferulic and p-coumaric acid) liberation from rice grains was examined using rice samples containing phenolic acid at different levels, using two sake mash simulated digestion tests to elucidate influencing factors. Phenolic acid levels in a digest made from steamed rice using dialyzed rice koji enzymes were smaller than levels in a rice koji self-digest. Differences in phenolic acid levels among rice samples in the rice koji self-digest were larger than levels in a digest of steamed rice. In the rice koji self-digest, phenolic acid levels in the ingredient rice grains or in the formed digest related to feruloylesterase (FE) activity in the rice koji. Addition of exogenous FE to rice koji self-digestion increased phenolic acid levels, while addition of xylanase (Xyl) showed weak effects. A concerted effect of FE and Xyl was not clearly observed. Addition of ferulic acid to koji made from α-rice grains raised FE activity, but it did not increase the activity of other enzymes. A similar phenomenon was observed in an agar plate culture of koji mold. These results indicated that ferulic acid levels in ingredient rice grains correlate with FE activities of koji, as a resulut, they affect the phenolic acid levels in sake mash.





  • Production of 16.5% v/v ethanol from seagrass seeds
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Volume 118, Issue 6

    Author(s): Motoharu Uchida , Tatsuo Miyoshi , Masaki Kaneniwa , Kenji Ishihara , Yutaka Nakashimada , Naoto Urano

    Ethanol fermentation on seeds of seagrass Zostera marina was studied. The seeds were collected from the annual plant colony of Z. marina at Hinase Bay, Okayama. The seeds contained 83.5% carbohydrates including 48.1% crude starch on a dry weight basis, which is comparable to cereals such as wheat flour and corns. The seeds were saccharified with glucoamylase (50°C, 96 h) and 103.4 g/l concentration of glucose juice was obtained. The glucose juice was further fermented (23°C–35°C, 15 days) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains NBRC10217T and Kyokai 7-go, and ethanol was obtained at a 65.0 g/l (82.3 ml/l) level by monographic double-fermentation and at a 130.4 g/l (165.1 ml/l) level by parallel double-fermentation. Fermented products of seagrass seeds containing such a high ethanol concentration as the present study have potential to be utilized not only for biofuel but also for foods and beverages in the future. Culturing of seagrass seeds as a crop may enable development of a new marine fermentation industry.





  • Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Volume 118, Issue 6

    Author(s): Kamila Myszka , Marcin T. Schmidt , Agnieszka K. Olejnik-Schmidt , Katarzyna Leja , Katarzyna Czaczyk

    The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 μg/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene.